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# Functions

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GS Quant uses Sphinx to generate python API documentation automatically from the source code.

## Type Hinting

Since Python 3.5, functions can use type hinting to document both parameter and return types:

```
import pandas as pd
def abs(x: pd.Series) -> pd.Series:
"""Docstring"""
# function code
```

Each variable can be typed through the syntax `param: type`

. The `abs`

function above has a
parameter `x`

which is documented as type `pd.Series`

, which is a pandas Series object. The `->`

syntax is used to declare the return type of the function. The `abs`

function above also returns a
pandas Series object.

## Docstring

Functions should use Docstrings per PEP 257 standard to document usage. Python function documentation should have the following components:

- Function title
- Parameters and return type
- Usage info
- Examples
- See also

Here's an example of a doc string:

```
def my_func(x: int) -> str:
"""
Title / one line description
:param x: description of parameter x
:return: description of return value
**Usage**
Describe how to use the function should be used
**Examples**
Provide one or more examples:
result = my_func(1)
**See also**
:func:`his_func` :func:`her_func`
"""
# function code
```

## Mathematical Formulas

The GS Quant documentation supports inline LaTex within python docstrings in order to render
mathematical formulae. This can be declared using the `:math:`

declaration. For example:

```
import pandas as pd
def abs(x: pd.Series) -> pd.Series:
"""Absolute value
:math:`R_t = |X_t|`
"""
# function code
```

Everything inside the math block quote marks will be rendered as LaTeX-formatted math.

## Full Example

See below for an example of a fully documented function:

```
def abs(x: pd.Series) -> pd.Series:
"""
Absolute value of each element in series
:param x: date-based time series of prices
:return: date-based time series of absolute value
**Usage**
Return the absolute value of :math:`X`. For each value in time series :math:`X_t`, return :math:`X_t` if :math:`X_t`
is greater than or equal to 0; otherwise return :math:`-X_t`:
:math:`R_t = |X_t|`
Equivalent to :math:`R_t = \sqrt{X_t^2}`
**Examples**
Generate price series and take absolute value of :math:`X_t-100`
>>> prices = generate_series(100) - 100
>>> abs_(prices)
**See also**
:func:`exp` :func:`sqrt`
"""
return abs(x)
```

## Related Content

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LaTeX

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